Probably the rarest snake in Australia, the rough-scaled python is only known from around ten snakes captured in the wild. The general colour is dark brown with pale brown blotches. Towards the tail the pale blotches become larger so that the pattern appears to be reversed with a pale background and darker blotches. The head is conspicuously triangular with an obvious constricted neck area. Each scale has a keel or ridge running along its centre giving the snake its common name and a rough, sandpaper feel. With so few known specimens it is difficult to say what the maximum size of the species is, however, all snakes so far have been less than 2m in length.
Restricted to the small patches of monsoonal rainforest in the far northwestern Kimberley region of Western Australia, the rough-scaled python has one of the smallest distributions of any snake. At this stage, virtually nothing is known of its biology but it appears to spend its time in the tops of trees or in sandstone caves and crevices becoming active at night in search of food.
In captivity the species will eat mice and rats. One specimen collected in the wild regurgitated its last meal a small native rock rat, apart from this observation nothing further is known about its diet. The species possess possibly the longest teeth of any snake, particularly in relation to body size. This is probably an adaptation to allow the rough-scaled python to penetrate through the fur or feathers of its intended meal and maintain its grip until the prey has been enveloped in the snake’s coils.
Rough scaled pythons mate mostly during July and August. The female lays approximately ten eggs and coils around them for warmth until they hatch. However, like other egg laying reptiles, the female does not take care of the young after hatching.